The Dusky grouper is a solitary, territorial species up to 150 cm in length, 60 kg in weight, and up to 50 years old. Lives on rocky bottoms, near the shelter of caves and gullies, feeding on octopus, crabs and fish. Prized for it's tasty flesh, the Dusky grouper is included on the IUCN Red List as "threatened". The sexual characteristics of the Dusky grouper make it especially vulnerable. It is a protogynous hermaphrodite species, initially female and becoming male at some later point in life. Therefore there is a high risk of unprotected populations consisting of all females, compromising their sustainability. Due to its sedentary lifestyle and curiosity towards divers, it easily becomes prey to underwater spear-gun hunters. It is a key species for our research data.